T. Arathy *, V. Bincy , B. V. Sindhuja , K. Irene , M. Nayana , V. Jemi
- Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) have become one of the most commonly prescribed category of drugs in both primary as well as tertiary care, commonly for gastric acid-related disorders. It is advised that no more than three 14-day treatment courses with PPIs should be used in one year.The two main indications for the long-term use of PPIs are gastro esophageal reflux disease and concomitant use with the maintenance dose of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs).PPIs block the gastric H+,K+-ATPase, inhibiting gastric acid secretion. If the drug is discontinued, there is a potential risk for rebound hypersecretion, creating a sort of dependency on the drug because the body is acclimated to having acid suppressed.The potential adverse effects relating to PPIs are Hypochlorhydria (11%- 24%) leading to pernicious anaemia and bone fractures(elevated risk after 7 years of continuous PPI therapy) and Hypergastrinemia (20%- 25%). Review of various literatures have shown that long-term PPI use is associated with upto fourfold increase in the risk of fundic gland polyps(upto 36%).Other potential consequences of chronic PPI use are malabsorption of key minerals (calcium and magnesium) in the body, increased risk of infections, cancer (5%-12%), severe drug interactions and birth defects.The most commonly seen infections with chronic PPI use are Enteric Infections and Community Acquired Pneumonia(CAP).A case-controlled study discovered an associated 2.5-fold risk of infection with concomitant PPI therapy. A population-based case-controlled study of7642 CAP cases identified, 11% were chronic PPI users.Another study found that 50% of chronic PPI users are more likely to develop CAP.Elderly, malnourished, immune-compromised, chronically ill, and osteoporotic patients theoretically could be at increased risk from longterm therapy.In conclusion, based on the above evidences, pharmacists are poised to educate patients about the benefits and risks associated with chronic PPI use.